-- * ACID (aka ACID test)

--   In computer science, ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability) 
--   is a set of properties that guarantee database transactions are processed reliably.

-- * Atomicity
--   The principle of atomicity states that all parts of a transaction must complete, 
--   or none of them. 
--   For example, if your business analysts have said that every time you change an
--   employee’s salary you must also change his grade, then the “atomic” transaction will
--   consist of two updates. The database must guarantee that both go through, or neither. 

-- * Consistency
--   The principle of consistency states that the results of a query must be consistent with
--   the state of the database at the time the query started.
-- * For uncommited data - as long as user-A changing data in Table-X without applying Commit, 
--   all other users will see the "old values"
-- * For commited data -  Imagine a simple query that averages the value of a column of a table. 
--   If the table is large, it will take many minutes to pass through the table. 
--   If other users are updating the column and commit while the query is in
--   progress, should the query include the new or the old values? Should it include rows
--   that were inserted or deleted after the query started?

-- * Isolation
--   The principle of isolation states that an incomplete (that is, uncommitted) transaction
--   must be invisible to the rest of the world.

-- * Durability.
--   The principle of durability states that once a transaction completes with a COMMIT, it
--   must be impossible for the database to lose it

-- DML & DDL - Behind the scenes

-- * Executing a Rollback

-- * if the session that initiated the transaction fails (perhaps the PC running the user process 
--   reboots, or the network link goes down), then the PMON will detect that there is a problem,
--   and roll back the transaction. 
-- * If the server crashes, then on startup SMON will detect
--   the problem and initiate a rollback. 
-- * A manual rollback requires the user to issue the
--   ROLLBACK command. But however the rollback is initiated, the mechanism is identical.
-- * Oracle’s implementation of the ROLLBACK command is to use
--   undo data to construct and execute another statement that will reverse the effect of
--   the first statement.

-- * Executing a Commit
-- * When you say COMMIT, all that happens physically is that LGWR flushes the log buffer
--   to disk. DBWn does absolutely nothing. This is one of the most important performance
--   features of the Oracle database.

-- * DDL and Transaction Control
-- * The COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements apply only to DML. You cannot roll back a
--   DDL statement: once executed, it is immediately durable

-- * The So-Called “Auto-Commit”
--   Quite simply, there is no such thing as an automatic commit. 
-- * When you execute a DDL statement for instance, a perfectly normal COMMIT is included in 
--   the source code that implements the DDL command. 
-- * When you exit from your user process - If you are using SQL*Plus on a Windows terminal (never 
--   mind what operating system the database server is running) and you issue a DML statement 
--   followed by an “exit,” your transaction will be committed. 
--   This is because a COMMIT statement is built into the SQL*Plus “exit” command.
-- * When you click in the top-right corner of the SQL*Plus window? The window will
--   close, and if you log in again, you will see that the transaction has been rolled back. 
--   This is because the programmers who wrote SQL*Plus for Microsoft Windows included a
--   ROLLBACK statement in the code that is executed when you close the window.

-- * Executing SQL statements

-- * Executing a SELECT Statement
--   1. The server process executing the statement will first check whether 
--      the blocks containing the data required are already in memory, in the database buffer cache. 
--   2. If they are, then execution can proceed immediately. 
--      If they are not, the server must locate them on disk and copy them into the 
--      database buffer cache.
--   3. Once the data blocks required for the query are in the database buffer cache, 
--      any further processing (such as sorting or aggregation) is carried out in the PGA of the
--      session. 
--   4. When the execution is complete, the result set is returned to the user process.

-- * Executing an Update Statement

--   1. The first step in executing DML is the same as executing SELECT: 
--      the required blocks must be found in memory or copied into memory from disk. 
--      The only change is that an empty block of an undo segment is needed too
--   2. Locks must be placed on any rows that will be affected by the operation
--   3. Then the redo is generated: the server process writes to the log buffer the changes
--      that are going to be applied to the data blocks.  
--   4. Having generated the redo, the update is carried out in the database buffer cache:
         A. The block of table data is updated with the new version of the changed column, 
         B. Tne the old version of the changed column is written to the block of an undo segment. 
--   5. From this point until the update is committed, 
--      all queries from other sessions addressing the changed row will be 
--      redirected to the undo data. 
--      Only the session that is doing the update will see the actual current 
--      version of the row in the table block.

-- * Executing Insert and Delete Statements

-- * Conceptually, INSERT and DELETE are managed in the same fashion as an UPDATE.
--   Redo generation is exactly the same: all changes to be made to data 
--   are first written out to the log buffer. 
-- * The difference is in the amount of undo generated. 
--   INSERT - When a row is inserted, the only undo generated consists of writing out the new rowid
--            to the undo block. This is because to roll back an INSERT, the only information Oracle
--            requires is the rowid, 
--   DELETE - the whole row is written to the undo block, so that the deletion 
--            can be rolled back if need be by inserting the complete row back
--            into the table.


-- Managing UNDO Data

-- Undo Parameters

-- * Manual - meaning that Oracle will not use undo segments at all.  
-- * This is for backward compatibility, and if you use this, you will
--   have to do a vast amount of work creating and tuning rollback segments. Don’t do it.
-- * Auto - to enable automatic undo management through the use of undo segments. 
--   In this case, DBAs relinquish undo segment management to Oracle. 
-- * This parameter is static.
-- * The other parameters are dynamic.

-- * UNDO_RETENTION parameter specifies the amount of time in seconds 
--   that Oracle *attempts* to keep undo data available.
-- * If, for example, your longest running query is thirty minutes, you would set 
--   this parameter to 1800. Oracle will then attempt to keep all undo data for 
--   at least 1800 seconds, and your query should therefore never fail with ORA-1555. 
-- * If, however, you do not set this parameter, or if you set it to zero,
--   Oracle will still keep data for as long as it can anyway. 
-- * The algorithm controlling which expired undo data is overwritten first will always choose to 
--   overwrite the oldest bit of data; 
-- * Therefore, UNDO_RETENTION is always at the maximum allowed by the size of
--   the tablespace

-- * UNDO_TABLESPACE This parameter nominates a tablespace, which must have been created
--   as an undo tablespace, as the active undo tablespace.

-- See Undo tablespaces:
SELECT tablespace_name, contents, retention
FROM dba_tablespaces;

-- Change retention
ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_retention = 800 ;

-- Undo Retention Guarantee (10g) 
-- * With the 10g release, there is an option to guarantee undo retention. 
--   This means that undo data will never be overwritten until the time specified by the 
--   UNDO_RETENTION parameters has passed. 
-- * Retention guarantee is enabled at the tablespace level via the Retention Guarantee clause. 
--   This attribute can be specified at undo tablespace creation time, or an undo tablespace 
--   can be altered later to enable it. 
-- * Once you activate an undo tablespace for which a retention guarantee has been specified,
--   all queries will complete successfully, provided they finish within the undo retention
--   time. 
-- * you will never have “snapshot too old” errors again. The downside is that
--   transactions may fail for lack of undo space because Oracle cannot overwrite committed
--   undo data until the retention time has passed.

SELECT tablespace_name, contents, retention
FROM dba_tablespaces;


SELECT tablespace_name, contents, retention
FROM dba_tablespaces;

-- Via OEM:
-- Server => (Database Configuration) => Automatic Undo Management
-- Server => (Database Configuration) => Initialization Parameters

-- Sizing your undo tablespace

SELECT (UR * (UPS * DBS)) + (DBS * 24) AS "Bytes" 
FROM (SELECT value AS UR FROM v$parameter WHERE name = 'undo_retention'), 
(SELECT (SUM(undoblks)/SUM(((end_time - begin_time)*86400))) AS UPS FROM v$undostat), 
(select block_size as DBS from dba_tablespaces where tablespace_name= 
(select value from v$parameter where name = 'undo_tablespace'));

-- or via OEM ...

-- Undo segment management 

-- active segments in the Undo tablespace 

set lines 200 
col program for a15
col username for a10
col osuser for a15
col sid for 999
col sr# for 999
col segment_name for a25
col tablespace_name for a15
col status for a15

SELECT segment_id, segment_name, B.status, xacts, tablespace_name
WHERE segment_id=usn;

-- for every new transaction a new undo segment will be available 

update hr.employees set salary = salary + 1 ;

update hr.departments set department_name = department_name || 'xxx';

update hr.regions set region_name = region_name || 'zzz' ;


-- Useful queries for UNDO usage

-- Identify transaction and session:

-- In one session:
Conn hr/hr
UPDATE employees SET salary=salary;

-- In another session:
conn / as sysdba

-- See all active Undo segments:

col program for a15
col username for a10
col osuser for a15
col sid for 999
col sr# for 999
col segment_name for a25
col tablespace_name for a15
col status for a15

SELECT segment_id, segment_name, tablespace_name, B.status, xacts "Active Transactions"
WHERE segment_id=usn
AND xacts > 0;

-- Which sessions use a specific undo segment:

SELECT username, program, osuser, sid, serial#
FROM v$session S, v$transaction T
WHERE S.taddr = T.addr ; 

-- Which sessions use active undo segments:

-- If needed can kill the problematic session:

-- DEMO - Flashback query 

SELECT last_name, salary
FROM hr.employees;

-- Update and commit (User forgot to put a where condition, and also commited his changes...)
UPDATE hr.employees
SET salary = 1;


-- Data is changed and cannot be rolled back...
SELECT last_name, salary
FROM hr.employees;

-- Flashback Query - Select from the table as it was at a specific point in the past:
-- In this example - go back one hour:

SELECT last_name, salary
FROM hr.employees AS OF TIMESTAMP sysdate - 1/24;

-- Fix the table with a correlated Update:
UPDATE hr.employees e
SET salary = (SELECT salary from hr.employees AS OF TIMESTAMP sysdate - 1/24
              WHERE employee_id = e.employee_id);

-- Oracle Isolation Levels

-- * Read committed 	
--   This is the default transaction isolation level. Each query executed by a transaction 
--   sees only data that was committed before the query (not the transaction) began. 
--   An Oracle query never reads dirty (uncommitted) data.

-- * Serializable 	
--   Serializable transactions see only those changes that were committed at the time the 
--   transaction began, 
--   plus those changes made by the transaction itself through INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE 
--   statements. 

-- * Read-only 	
--   Read-only transactions see only those changes that were committed at the time 
--   the transaction began and do not allow INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements

-- * Serializable Example

-- User A

 ALTER SESSION SET ISOLATION_LEVEL=SERIALIZABLE; --(Default behaviour for each new transaction)
-- or 
 SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE;  --(specific behaviour for the next new transaction)

 conn hr/hr

 SELECT last_name , salary
 FROM employees
 WHERE rownum < 11 ;

-- User B

 conn hr/hr

 SELECT last_name , salary
 FROM employees
 WHERE rownum < 11 ;

 UPDATE employees SET salary = 1 ; 


-- USER A 

 SELECT last_name , salary
 FROM employees
 WHERE rownum < 11 ;

------------------- Fix the table 

 UPDATE hr.employees e
 SET salary = (SELECT salary from hr.employees AS OF TIMESTAMP sysdate - 10/1440
              WHERE employee_id = e.employee_id);