-- * A secure system ensures the confidentiality of the data that it contains. 
-- * There are several aspects of security:
--   1. Restricting access to data and services
--   2. Authenticating users
--   3. Monitoring for suspicious activity

-- Audit Types:

-- 1. Mandatory Auditing 
--    Regardless of whether database auditing is enabled, Oracle Database always audits 
--    certain database-related operations and writes them to the operating system audit file. 
--    This fact is called mandatory auditing, and it includes the following operations:
--    1. Connections to the instance with administrator privileges
--       An audit record is generated that lists the operating system user connecting to Oracle 
--       Database as SYSOPER or SYSDBA. 
--       This provides for accountability of users with administrative privileges. 
--    2. Database startup
--       An audit record is generated that lists the operating system user starting the instance 
--       and the date and time stamp. 
--       This data is stored in the operating system audit trail because the database 
--       audit trail is not available until after the startup has successfully completed.
--    3. Database shutdown
--       An audit record is generated that lists the operating system user shutting down the 
--       instance and the date and time stamp.
--    *(win) Start =>  Control Panel => Performance and Maintenance => Administrative Tools =>  
--     Computer Management => Event Viewer, Application Log (Log viewer) on Windows.
--    *(unix) AUDIT_FILE_DEST directory

--
-- 2. Standard DB auditing 
--     - Using the AUDIT command. ("AUDIT DROP TABLE")
--     - Audits according to privileges.
--     - Can be "By Access" or "By Session" 
--            (Defaults: SYSTEM privs - By Access, OBJECT privs - By Session)
--     - Can be "Whenever Successful" or "Whenever Not Successful" (Default is both)
--     - Must be enabled manually via static AUDIT_TRAIL parameter.(=DB / DB_EXTENDED / OS / NONE)
--         - DB : DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL
--         - OS : Event Log (windows) or Audit_file_dest (Unix)
--         - XML: XML file in Audit_file_dest. (Can view with V$XML_AUDIT_TRAIL)
--     - AUDIT_TRAIL=DB_EXTENDED:
--       - Stores also full SQL + Binds
--       - Stores Transaction identifier (To group related statements)
--     - 11g behavior:
--        - DBCA sets AUDIT_TRAIL=DB
--        - Audits Many ANY privileges, GRANTs, CREATE USER etc. by default.
--
-- 3. Triggers - Value based auditing 
--     - Captures the actual values that changed. (Old and New)
--     - Uses PL/SQL Triggers.
--     - Fires at row level. ("For Each Row")
--
-- 4. FGA - Fine Grained Auditing 
--     - Conditional:
--       - Can specify which columns I want to audit. (And specify ANY/ALL)
--       - Can specify conditions for auditing.
--       - Null columns & Conditions will audit all columns and all rows.
--       - Monitors the statements actual result (affected rows), Not the statement's original 
--         predicate.
--          (Accept for SELECT statement which captures the statement itself)
--     - Captures the actual SQL statement + Binds.
--     - Can execute a procedure. ("Handler Module")
--     - Create and maintain Audit Policies via DBMS_FGA. (DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY)
--     - Works at statement level. (Not ROW-Level like Value-Based triggers)
--
-- 5. SYSDBA auditing 
--     - Stores the audit data also outside the DB, in an OS trail, to track the DBA.
--     - Can set the parameter "audit_sys_operations" to TRUE. (Defualt is FALSE)


-- * Three relevant tables:
--   1. DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL - Standard Auditing.
--   2. DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL - FGA
--   3. DBA_COMMON_AUDIT_TRAIL - Combines them both to One central location.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- STANDARD DB AUDITING (AUDIT / AUDIT_TRAIL / DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-- 1. Activate AUDITING (In 11g enabled by default)
-- 2. Specify audit options
-- 3. Review the audited actions 
-- 4. Maintenance

DROP TABLE hr.emp2;

CREATE TABLE hr.emp2 AS SELECT * FROM hr.employees;


-- 1. Activate AUDITING (In 11g enabled by default)
---------------------------------------------------

show parameter AUDIT_TRAIL

-- 1.None 
--   (or FALSE) Database auditing is disabled, no matter what auditing
--    you attempt to configure.
-- 2.OS 
--    Audit records will be written to the operating system’s audit trail: 
--    *(win) Start =>  Control Panel => Performance and Maintenance => Administrative Tools =>  
--     Computer Management => Event Viewer, Application Log (Log viewer) on Windows.
--    *(unix) AUDIT_FILE_DEST directory
-- 3. DB
--    (or TRUE) The audit records are written to a data dictionary table,
--    SYS.AUD$. There are views that let you see the contents of this table.
-- 4. DB_EXTENDED 
--   (11g) - As DB, but including information on the SQL statements
--    with bind variables that generated the audit records.
--    show parameter audit_trail

-- NONE 

ALTER SYSTEM SET audit_trail = FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE ;
ALTER SYSTEM SET audit_trail = NONE  SCOPE=SPFILE ;

-- OS  

ALTER SYSTEM SET audit_trail = OS SCOPE=SPFILE ;

-- DB 

ALTER SYSTEM SET audit_trail = DB SCOPE=SPFILE ;

-- DB_EXTENDED 

ALTER SYSTEM SET audit_trail = DB_EXTENDED SCOPE=SPFILE ;

-----------------

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
STARTUP

-- 2. Specify audit options
---------------------------

Privilege Auditing
------------------

-- * Enables you to audit the use of powerful system privileges that enable corresponding actions, 
--   such as AUDIT CREATE TABLE. 
--   You can set privilege auditing to audit a selected user or every user in the database.
-- * Can be "By Access" or "By Session" 
--   Defaults: SYSTEM privs - By Access, OBJECT privs - By Session 
-- * Can be "Whenever Successful" or "Whenever Not Successful" 
--   Default is both

-- AUDIT privilege_name [BY username] [by SESSION | ACCESS] [WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL | NOT SUCCESSFUL]

NOAUDIT CREATE SESSION ;
NOAUDIT CREATE SESSION BY HR;
NOAUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE ;
NOAUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE BY hr ; 

set lines 200
col audit_option for a30

SELECT user_name, audit_option, success, failure
FROM DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS;

-- Basic audit  
AUDIT CREATE SESSION ;

SELECT user_name, audit_option, success, failure
FROM DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS
WHERE audit_option LIKE '%SESSION%';
'
-- Specify the user 
AUDIT CREATE SESSION BY hr BY ACCESS ;

SELECT user_name, audit_option, success, failure
FROM DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS
WHERE audit_option LIKE '%SESSION%';

-- audit - (success & failure) by session 
AUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE BY hr BY SESSION ; 

SELECT user_name, audit_option, success, failure
FROM DBA_STMT_AUDIT_OPTS
WHERE audit_option LIKE '%UPDATE%';

-- Change the audit - (success only) by access 
AUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE BY hr BY ACCESS WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL ;

-- Change the audit - (failure only) by access
AUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE BY hr BY ACCESS WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL ;

-- Change the audit - (failure only) by session
AUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE BY hr BY SESSION WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL ;

-- NOAUDIT Options 
------------------
NOAUDIT CREATE SESSION ;
NOAUDIT CREATE SESSION BY hr ;
NOAUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE ;
NOAUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE BY hr; 
NOAUDIT UPDATE ANY TABLE BY hr WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL ;


-- Schema Object Auditing
------------------------- 
-- * Enables you to audit specific statements on a particular schema object, 
--   such as AUDIT SELECT ON employees. 
-- * Schema object auditing always applies to all users of the database.
-- * Can be "By Access" or "By Session" 
--   Defaults: SYSTEM privs - By Access, OBJECT privs - By Session 
-- * Can be "Whenever Successful" or "Whenever Not Successful" 
--   Default is both 

-- AUDIT object_priv_name ON object_name [BY ACCESS | SESSION][WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL|NOT SUCCESSFUL]

CREATE TABLE hr.emp2 AS SELECT * FROM hr.employees ;
NOAUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2 ;

col owner for a10
col object_type for a15
col object_name for a15

SELECT OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_TYPE, INS, UPD, DEL
FROM DBA_OBJ_AUDIT_OPTS

-- basic audit - (success & failure) 
AUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2;

SELECT OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_TYPE, INS, UPD, DEL
FROM DBA_OBJ_AUDIT_OPTS;

-- * The character "-" indicates that the audit option is not set.
-- * The character "S" indicates that the audit option is set, BY SESSION.
-- * The character "A" indicates that the audit option is set, BY ACCESS.
-- * Each audit option has two possible settings, WHENEVER SUCCESSFUL and WHENEVER NOT SUCCESSFUL

-- basic audit - (success & failure) 
AUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2;

-- audit - (success & failure) by access
AUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2 by access;

SELECT OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_TYPE, INS, UPD, DEL
FROM DBA_OBJ_AUDIT_OPTS
WHERE OBJECT_NAME = 'EMP2'; 

-- audit - (failure) by session
AUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2 by session Whenever Not Successful;

-- audit - (success) by access
AUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2 by access  Whenever Successful;


-- NOAUDIT OPTIONS
------------------
AUDIT ALL ON hr.emp2 ; 
NOAUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2 ;

AUDIT ALL ON hr.emp2 ; 
NOAUDIT ALL ON hr.emp2 ; 

AUDIT ALL ON hr.emp2 ; 
NOAUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2 Whenever Not Successful;


-- 3. Review the audited actions 
--------------------------------

------------ Demo 

AUDIT CREATE SESSION Whenever Successful;
AUDIT DELETE ON hr.emp2 by access;
AUDIT CREATE ANY TABLE;
AUDIT UPDATE ON hr.emp2 by access;

----------- Actions 

grant create any table to hr;

conn hr/hr@pdborcl

DELETE FROM emp2 WHERE salary > 10000;

CREATE TABLE sh.cacthme3(id number);

UPDATE hr.emp2 SET salary = salary - 1000 ; 

conn sys/password@pdborcl as sysdba

UPDATE hr.emp2 SET last_name = 'Kishkashta' ; 


col username for a8
col obj_name for a30
col action_name for a20
col os_username for a15
col priv_used for a17
col obj_name for a15

SELECT USERNAME, OS_USERNAME, ACTION_NAME, OBJ_NAME, TO_CHAR(TIMESTAMP,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi') Time
FROM dba_audit_trail
WHERE ACTION_NAME='DELETE';
-- or 
SELECT USERNAME, OS_USERNAME, ACTION_NAME, OBJ_NAME, TO_CHAR(TIMESTAMP,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi') Time
FROM dba_audit_trail
WHERE OBJ_NAME='EMP2';

SELECT USERNAME, OS_USERNAME, ACTION_NAME, OBJ_NAME, 
TO_CHAR(TIMESTAMP,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi') Time,  PRIV_USED
FROM dba_audit_trail
WHERE ACTION_NAME='CREATE TABLE' ;

SELECT table_name , owner
FROM dba_tables
WHERE table_name = 'TEST';

-- How to audit actions made by sys ? 
-------------------------------------

SHOW PARAMETER AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS 
ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS = TRUE SCOPE = SPFILE ;

STARTUP FORCE

UPDATE hr.emp2 SET last_name = 'Kishkashta again' ; 

SELECT USERNAME, OS_USERNAME, ACTION_NAME, OBJ_NAME, TO_CHAR(TIMESTAMP,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi') Time
FROM dba_audit_trail
WHERE OBJ_NAME='EMP2'

-- * All audit records for SYS are written to the operating system file that contains 
--   the audit trail, and not to DBA_AUDIT_TRAIL
--   ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS = FALSE SCOPE = SPFILE

-- How to see the actual SQL command (DB_EXTENDED)
--------------------------------------------------

col sql_text for a30
SELECT USERNAME, OS_USERNAME, ACTION_NAME, OBJ_NAME, 
TO_CHAR(TIMESTAMP,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi') Time, sql_text
FROM dba_audit_trail
WHERE OBJ_NAME='EMP2' ;

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=DB_EXTENDED SCOPE=SPFILE;

startup force

SELECT USERNAME, OS_USERNAME, ACTION_NAME, OBJ_NAME, 
TO_CHAR(TIMESTAMP,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi') Time, sql_text
FROM dba_audit_trail
WHERE OBJ_NAME='EMP2' ;

conn hr/hr

update emp2 set salary = salary + 10 ;

conn / as sysdba 

SELECT USERNAME, OS_USERNAME, ACTION_NAME, OBJ_NAME, 
TO_CHAR(TIMESTAMP,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi') Time, sql_text
FROM dba_audit_trail
WHERE OBJ_NAME='EMP2' ;

ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_TRAIL=DB SCOPE=SPFILE;


--  Test for failed logon attempts, grouped per day.
----------------------------------------------------

col username for a15
col terminal for a6
col timestamp for a15
col logoff_time for a15
col action_name for a8
col returncode for 9999
col OS_USERNAME for a20

select count(*),username,terminal,to_char(timestamp,'DD-MON-YYYY')
from dba_audit_session
where returncode<>0
group by username,terminal,to_char(timestamp,'DD-MON-YYYY')


-- Check for attempts to access the database with non existant users. This could
-- indicate someone trying to guess user names and passwords.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

select username,terminal,to_char(timestamp,'DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')
from dba_audit_session
where returncode<>0
and not exists (select 'x'
   from dba_users
   where dba_users.username=dba_audit_session.username)

-- Logons list for specific user : 
---------------------------------

col userhost for a15
set lines 200
SELECT username , os_username , to_char(timestamp,'DD-MON-YYYY HH:MM:SS') AS "TIME"
from dba_audit_session
where username = '&username'
order by timestamp DESC

--------------------------------------------
-- Maintenance
--------------------------------------------

-- 1. by a manual delete from SYS.AUD$
-- 2. by using plsql
-- 3. by moving / exporting the SYS.AUD$ contents somewhere else 
 
DESC SYS.AUD$

DELETE FROM sys.aud$ WHERE obj$name='&table_name';

DELETE FROM sys.aud$ WHERE USERID = '&username';

create or replace procedure purge_audit_trail (days in number)
as
purge_date date;
begin
purge_date := trunc(sysdate-days);
dbms_output.put_line('AUDIT: Purging Audit Trail until ' || purge_date ||' started');
delete from aud$ where ntimestamp# < purge_date;
commit;
dbms_output.put_line('AUDIT: Purging Audit Trail until ' ||       purge_date || ' has completed'); end;

------------------------------------
-- Via OEM
------------------------------------
-- * Can add auditing and view audit trails from:
--   Server => (Security) => Audit Settings
-- * View the trails at the "Audit Trails" section.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- FINE GRAINED AUDITING - DBMS_FGA / DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-- FGA demo:

-- DBMS_FGA (ADD/DROP, ENABLE/DISABLE)
desc dbms_fga  

begin
    dbms_fga.add_policy (
      object_schema        => 'HR',
      object_name          => 'EMPLOYEES',
      policy_name          => 'audit_emps_salary',
      audit_condition      => 'department_id=10',
      audit_column         => 'SALARY,COMMISSION_PCT',
      enable               =>  TRUE,
      statement_types      => 'SELECT,UPDATE');
end;

conn hr/hr@pdborcl
SELECT last_name, salary FROM hr.employees WHERE department_id=10;

-- Audited?
conn sys/password@pdborcl as sysdba
desc dba_fga_audit_trail

col sql_text for a20
col sql_text for a20

SELECT db_user, sql_text, TO_CHAR(timestamp,'dd/mm/yyyy hh24:mi')
FROM dba_fga_audit_trail;

exec dbms_fga.drop_policy('HR','EMPLOYEES','audit_emps_salary')

TRUNCATE TABLE fga_log$;

SELECT sql_text FROM dba_fga_audit_trail;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Value Based Auditing - AFTER DML TRIGGER - log the change that was made
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- * Database auditing records the inserts, updates, and deletes that have occurred 
--   in audited objects but does not capture the actual values that are changed. 
-- * To extend database auditing, value-based auditing leverages database triggers 
--   (event-driven PL/SQL constructs) to capture the changed values.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- STATEMENT LEVEL TRIGGER:

-- Disable the last trigger:
--ALTER TRIGGER check_time_emp DISABLE;

DROP TABLE log_emp;

--Create a log table 
DROP TABLE log_emp;
CREATE TABLE log_emp
(username VARCHAR2(10),
dml_time VARCHAR2(20),
action VARCHAR2(10));

--Create the trigger:
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_emp_trig
AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE
ON employees
DECLARE
  v_Action        VARCHAR2(10);
BEGIN
  IF INSERTING THEN v_Action:='INSERT';
  ELSIF UPDATING THEN v_Action:='UPDATE';
  ELSE v_Action:='DELETE';
  END IF;
  INSERT INTO log_emp
  VALUES (USER,TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'),v_action);
END;

--Use it:

UPDATE employees SET salary=salary+100;

INSERT INTO employees (employee_id,last_name,first_name,hire_date,job_id,email,department_id)
VALUES (5555,USER,USER,SYSDATE,'SA_REP',USER||'@HOTMAIL.COM',50);

DELETE employees WHERE employee_id=5555;

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

--Try to delete -> constraint in place, the delete fails and the trigger was not triggered:
DELETE employees WHERE employee_id=100;

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- FOR EACH ROW

DROP TABLE log_Emp;

--Create log table
CREATE TABLE log_emp
(username VARCHAR2(10),
dml_time VARCHAR2(20),
old_emp_id NUMBER,
new_emp_id NUMBER,
old_salary NUMBER,
new_salary NUMBER);

DESC log_Emp

--Create trigger
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_emp_trig
AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON employees
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO log_emp
  VALUES (USER,TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'),
  :OLD.employee_id,:NEW.employee_id,
  :OLD.salary,:NEW.salary);
END;

--Use it

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

UPDATE employees 
SET salary=salary+2000 
WHERE employee_id BETWEEN 100 AND 105;

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

--Use it again- not all columns will have values in the log table

INSERT INTO employees (employee_id,last_name,first_name,hire_date,job_id,email,department_id)
VALUES (5555,USER,USER,SYSDATE,'SA_REP',USER||'@HOTMAIL.COM',50);

DELETE employees WHERE employee_id=5555;

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Example for using WHEN

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER check_sal_diff
BEFORE UPDATE OF salary ON employees
FOR EACH ROW
WHEN ((NEW.salary - OLD.salary) > 2000)
BEGIN
 RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR(-20000,'The Difference is too large.');
END;

-- Check the trigger
update employees set salary=salary +2500;

update employees set salary=salary +1500;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- autonomous_transaction
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SELECT * FROM log_emp;

ROLLBACK;

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

-- Try to solve it with using commit in the trigger

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_emp_trig
AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON employees
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO log_emp
  VALUES (USER,TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'),
    :OLD.employee_id,:NEW.employee_id,
    :OLD.salary,:NEW.salary);
  COMMIT;
END;
/

-- Try to use the trigger
update employees set salary=salary+500;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--Solution: PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_emp_trig
AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON employees
FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
    PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;
BEGIN
    INSERT INTO log_emp
    VALUES (USER,TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'),
      :OLD.employee_id,:NEW.employee_id,
      :OLD.salary,:NEW.salary);
    COMMIT;
END;

--Use it:

update employees set salary=salary+500;

SELECT salary FROM employees;

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

--Rollback and see that the changes where saved in the log table:
ROLLBACK;
SELECT salary FROM employees;
SELECT * FROM log_emp;

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION Without Commiting

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_emp_trig
AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON employees
FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
  PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO log_emp
  VALUES (USER,TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'),
  :OLD.employee_id,:NEW.employee_id,
  :OLD.salary,:NEW.salary);
END;

-- Try to Use It

update employees set salary=salary+500;

-----------------------------------------------
-- If I want to know if succeded or failed:
-----------------------------------------------


DROP TABLE log_Emp;
DROP SEQUENCE log_emp_seq;
DROP FUNCTION log_emp_func;


--Create log table
CREATE TABLE log_emp
(log_id NUMBER,
 username VARCHAR2(10),
dml_time VARCHAR2(20),
emp_id NUMBER,
old_salary NUMBER,
new_salary NUMBER,
Status VARCHAR2(10) DEFAULT 'Failed');

CREATE SEQUENCE log_emp_seq;

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION log_emp_func
(p_user VARCHAR2,
 p_date VARCHAR2,
 p_emp_id NUMBER,
 p_old_salary NUMBER,
 p_new_salary NUMBER) 
RETURN NUMBER
IS 
  PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;
  v_log_id NUMBER;
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO log_emp
  VALUES (log_emp_seq.NEXTVAL, p_user, p_date, p_emp_id, p_old_salary, p_new_salary,DEFAULT)
  RETURNING log_id INTO v_log_id;

  COMMIT;

  RETURN v_log_id;
END;
/

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_emp_trig
AFTER UPDATE OF salary ON employees
FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
  v_log_id NUMBER;
BEGIN
  v_log_id := log_emp_func(USER,TO_CHAR(SYSDATE,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'),
        :OLD.employee_id, :OLD.salary,:NEW.salary);

  UPDATE log_emp
  SET status = 'Success'
  WHERE log_id = v_log_id;
END;
/

UPDATE employees 
SET salary=salary+500
WHERE employee_id BETWEEN 100 AND 103;

SELECT salary FROM employees
WHERE employee_id BETWEEN 100 AND 103;

SELECT * FROM log_emp;

--Rollback and see that the changes where saved in the log table:
ROLLBACK;